• Provide bibliographic citations for all sources which you drew on in elaborating your thesis. Do not forget that citations are required for non-text sources as well, e.g. interviews, films, photographs and musical scores.
  • In the list of bibliographic citations of works cited, do not include sources which you did not use for your thesis.
  • Use the exact bibliographic information, so that it can be used to find and possibly obtain the cited source.
  • Use scholarly and trustworthy sources, and always consider whether they are relevant to your topic. Always work very circumspectly and critically with information obtained e.g. on Wikipedia, in online sources, in the Bachelor’s and Master’s theses of other students, etc., i.e. sources that have not undergone peer review.


  • By using citations, you demonstrate your knowledge of significant authors in the field and the current state of understanding of the topic.
  • You demonstrate that you understand the topic and are familiar with the issues.
  • You enable others to find the original sources which you drew on in elaborating your thesis.


The form and order for entering information are set out by the ČSN ISO 690 (010197) citation standard for Czech, and by the ČSN ISO 690 citation standard generally.

These standards contain rules for writing and referencing bibliographic citations for all kinds of information sources, including monographs, periodicals, contributions in monographs or periodicals, patents, cartographic documents, artworks and artistic performances, as well as various electronic sources, e.g. research data, databases, programs and applications, web archives and social media, music, audio recordings, printed matter, photographs, graphic and audio-visual documents, archival resources and films.


Using citations involves three basic steps:

1.    creating bibliographic citations
2.    compiling them into a list of works cited
3.    creating references in the text to specific bibliographic citations in footnotes

When writing a scholarly text, one must keep in mind that each reference in the text must correspond to a bibliographic citation in the list of works cited, and that there are formal rules even for the ordering of this list (see point 2).


We differentiate two types of citation:

  • Direct citation – citing the original wording of the text separated by inverted commas (quotation marks)
  • Indirect citation – paraphrasing, i.e. rewriting the original idea in one’s own words

By using a citation reference in the text, we refer to a document which we used.
Literal quotations from a source text and even individual expressions should be specified in inverted commas, and a reference should be added to the relevant citation in a footnote. If the text is not quoted literally, then a citation reference should be added after the relevant sentence or paragraph.

If you are citing literally from a foreign-language source, use your own translation in a direct citation. Then, in the footnote, add the original text and a note stating that this is your own translation (see the example of a direct citation below). If you are paraphrasing, i.e. if you are not copying the text literally, then no inverted commas are used. You should always add a reference to the citation after the relevant sentence or paragraph.

There are various methods within the scope of the ISO 690 standard for citing sources in a text, but the citation style used must be uniform throughout .

Direct citation

Judith Lynne Hanna defined dance as follows: “Thus, for purposes of cross-cultural comparisons, I conceptualize dance as human behaviour composed – from the dancer's perspective as 1) purposeful, 2) intentionally rhythmical, and 3) culturally patterned sequences of 4a) non-verbal body movements 4b) other than ordinary motor activities, 4c) the motion having inherent and aesthetic value.” 1
1 HANNA, Judith Lynne. Is dance music? Resemblances and Relationships [online]. The World of Music, vol. 24, no. 1 (1982), s. 57. ISSN 0043-8774. Available from: . [accessed on 2023-03-06].

Indirect citation (paraphrasing)

In her paper Is Dance Music? Judith Lynn Hanna defines dance from the perspective of cultural anthropology, emphasising the emic viewpoint of the dancer, the cultural specificity of the dance, and its connection to models of the culture in which it exists. From the parameters of dance, she emphasises corporeality, rhythmicity, non-verbality of movements, their sequencing, intentionality, purposefulness, distinctiveness from quotidian movement activities, and the presence of specific values; she does not mention the spatial nature of dance. 2
2 HANNA, Judith Lynne. Is dance music? Resemblances and Relationships [online]. The World of Music, vol. 24 (1982), no. 1, s. 57–71. ISSN 0043-8774. Available from: . [accessed on 2023-03-06].

Bibliographic citations according to the ISO 690 standard

Always create a citation according to the version of the work that you have available. For online sources, specify the URL of the given work, not just that of the homepage. Also include sources for which it is difficult to create citations, and consult your thesis supervisor on how to formulate them. Double-check the formal elements of your citations (e.g. dates for accessing online sources and the date of assignment/submission/publication of the work).

You can even download citations from library catalogues and databases. It is also possible to use the service, which has been adapted to the Czech citation standard and is available free of charge for the basic version. The paid version (Citace PRO Plus) offers expanded functionality for web browsers and for MS Word.

Another useful tool is Zotero ( ). It is available free of charge, although only in English and the citation style per the Czech ISO 690 citation standard is not automatically available.

We recommend that you start working with a citation manager right from the beginning. Among other things, it will enable you to create a synoptic library of sources as part of your preparatory research.

Different information is needed to create citations for each type of source. The standard prescribes which information to include, in what form and in what order. If you are unsure, please have a look at the links below. It is important to adhere to a uniform style for entering citations throughout your thesis.


Book – monograph

SURNAME, Given Name(s) (up to five co-authors, list all of them; in the case of six or more co-authors, use the abbreviation “et al.” after the fifth). Title: Subtitle (subtitles are normally capitalised in English, and uncapitalised in Czech). Type of work (if a specification is appropriate). SURNAME, Given Name(s) (translator) (if applicable). Edition (only if not the first edition). Place of publication: publisher, year of publication. ISBN.

NAVRÁTIL, Antonín. Cesty k pravdě či lži . 2. vyd. Praha: Nakladatelství AMU, 2002. ISBN 80-7331-909-8.

SAVAGE, Karen, SYMONDS, Dominic. Economies of Collaboration in Performance: More than the Sum of the Parts . Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. ISBN 9783319952109.

PUŠKIN, Alexandr Sergejevič. Ruslan a Ludmila: velká kouzelná opera v pěti dějích . Libreto. KOLÁŘ, Josef (překladatel). 3. vyd. Praha: Fr. A. Urbánek, 1887.

Contribution in an edited volume

SURNAME, Given Name(s). Title of the contribution: Subtitle of contribution (subtitles are normally capitalised in English, and uncapitalised in Czech). In: SURNAME, Given Name(s) (of the editor(s)). Title of the edited volume . Edition (only if not the first edition). Place of publication: publisher, date or publication, volume number etc., page numbers of the contribution in the source document. ISBN.

KOUBOVÁ, Alice, KUBARTOVÁ, Eliška. (S)jednat performanci knihou. In: KOUBOVÁ, Alice, KUBARTOVÁ, Eliška (eds.). Terény performance , s. 13-22. Praha: Nakladatelství AMU, 2021. ISBN 978-80-7331-581-8.

SVATOŇOVÁ, Kateřina. Pokusy s artisty a zpívajícím slonem aneb Možnosti vybočení v normalizační kinematografii. In: BÍLEK, Petr A., ŠEBEK, Josef (eds.). Česká populární kultura: transfery, transponování a delší tranzitní procesy , s. 123–150. Praha: FF UK, 2017. ISBN 978-80-7308-725-8.

Contribution (paper) in a periodical

SURNAME, Given Name(s) of the author(s). Title of the contribution. Title of the perodical , volume year (year of publication), volume number, page numbers. ISSN.

JUNGMANNOVÁ, Lenka. Kudy vede hranice mezi literární a divadelní vědou?. Divadelní revue , vol. 33 (2022), no. 3, s. 71-73. ISSN 0862-5409.

TESAŘ, Antonín. Filmové ekohorory: když příroda vrací úder. Cinepur , roč. 30 (2021), č. 137, s. 94-101. ISSN 1213-516X.

If you accessed the work in digital form , add “[online]” after the title. Then add the link and date on which you accessed it after the publication information.

ROGOŠIĆ, Višnja Kačić. 1990s Beyond institutions: Zagreb independent theatre scene [online]. ArteActa, roč. 5 (2022), č. 7, s. 7–26. ISSN 257-1695. Available from: . [accessed on 2023-02-15].

Contribution (paper) online

SURNAME, Given Name(s) of the author(s). Title of the contribution [online]. Title of the website (e.g. online magazine). Date of publication online. ISSN. Information about availability [date accessed].

HLAVÁČEK, Karel. To už není chyba, ale zločin. Docent bere méně než nastupující středoškolský učitel, kterého na univerzitě připravoval [online]. Deník N. 2022-02-13. ISSN 2571-1717. Available from: . [accessed on 2022-02-14].

LOUGHRIDGE, Deirdre, PATTESON, Thomas. Kočičí piana a domy akustiky: imaginární hudební nástroje v dějinách hudby [online]. A2. 2020, č. 22. ISSN 1803-6635. Available from: . [accessed on 2022-02-17].

Unpublished or non-text sources

When creating citations for other types of works, it is generally necessary to specify (if known) the name of the author(s) in the order SURNAME, Given Name(s). In parentheses, add the author’s role as a conductor, director, etc. (if applicable), and the Title of the work . In square brackets, add additional information as appropriate such as a translation of title or variant of work, e.g. “for piano”. Add the type of work, e.g. Film, Statue, Musical score, Concert, etc. If the source is accessible online, add “[online]” after the title and type of work. In the case of unpublished sources, we recommend that you specify the place of deposition or realisation (Place: ). Always specify the year of the work’s creation, publication or realisation. In the case of online sources, add “Available from:” and the web address. Then in square brackets add the date when you accessed it “[accessed on YYYY-MM-DD]”.

Archival source

SURNAME, Given Name(s) of the author(s). Title of work . Description of work. Place: Name of archive, and possibly additional information about its location (e.g. call number).

FREJKA, Jaroslav. Sen noci svatojánské . Režijní kniha. Místo: Národní muzeum v Praze, Divadelní oddělení, pozůstalost J. Frejky, JaF 25-8-9.

Interview transcript

SURNAME, Given Name(s) of the interviewer(s). Title of interview . Type of work. Date when the interview took place in YYYY-MM-DD format. Place: Location of the transcript.

NĚMEC, Bohuslav. Rozhovor s Karlem Vachkem . Přepis rozhovoru. 2010-09-12. Místo: Soukromý archiv Bohuslava Němce.


SURNAME, Given Name(s) of the author (role, ideally director or producer). Original film title [Czech distribution title or other distribution title, if applicable]. Film. Year of first screening.

NOLAN, Christopher (režisér). Inception [Počátek]. Film. 2010.


SURNAME, Given Name(s) (creator or name of institution, music group ...). Title of video . Date of publication in YYYY-MM-DD format. Available from: web address [accessed on YYYY-MM-DD].

VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM. Decode Exhibition [online]. 2010-09-15. Available from: . [accessed on 2023-03-01].


EBBETS, Charles Clyde (photographer). Lunch atop a Skyscraper . Photograph [online]. 1932. Available from:ěd_na_vrcholu_mrakodrapu . [accessed on 2023-03-01].

Musical score (sheet music)

SURNAME, Given Name(s) e.g. of the composer. Title of composition: Subtitle (subtitles are normally capitalised in English, and uncapitalised in Czech) or arrangement . Type of work. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication.

MARTINŮ, Bohuslav. IV. smyčcový kvartet: pro dvoje housle, violu a violoncello . Partitura. Praha: Státní hudební vydavatelství, 1963.

Music performance

PINK FLOYD. The Wall Tour . Concert tour. 1980–1981. Place: Los Angeles, London.

Theatre production

AVRAMOVA, Tinka (režisér). Encyklopedie ničeho . Divadelní představení. 2023-03-02. Místo: Divadlo Disk, Praha.

Social network contribution

SURNAME, Given Name(s) of the author [Name of social network: name or address of profile]. [ Page title , contents , first few words , or heading of contribution ]. Type of work. Date of publication in YYYY-MM-DD format. Available from: Name of social network, web address [accessed on YYYY-MM-DD].

BAXA, Martin [Twitter: @MartinBaxa2]. [ Mám rád knihovny ]. Tweet. 2023-03-01. Available from: Twitter, . [accessed on 2023-03-01].



A list of the complete bibliographic citations of the works used in elaborating your thesis should be included at the end of the main text and before the annexes. It is a separate chapter titled List of Works Cited.

The List of Works Cited should contain all sources which the author used in his or her thesis. This is therefore not a list of all publications which concern the thesis topic. You should order the List of Works Cited alphabetically. It is additionally possible to structure it thematically or according to the type of work (e.g. books, manuscripts, papers in edited volumes, films, live productions, etc.).

Individual publications and other sources should be ordered alphabetically by the author’s surname or by the publication title (if the author is unknown).


1.    BOHAČKOVÁ, Kamila. Nosiče DVD začínají nabízet program na celý den. Hospodářské noviny . 2001-08-19. ISSN 0862-9587.

2.    NAVRÁTIL, Antonín. Cesty k pravdě či lži: 70 let československého dokumentárního filmu . 2. vyd. Praha: Nakladatelství AMU, 2002. ISBN 80-7331-909-8.

3.    SKÝBOVÁ, Anna. České královské korunovační klenoty . Praha: Panorama, 1982.


For written theses, we recommend that AMU students make citations using footnotes. For these citations, a numbered superscript reference in the text is used (e.g. “... according to Husserl 22 ...”). In the corresponding footnote, the bibliographic citation is specified – in full on the first occurrence for a particular source, and in an abbreviated form on subsequent occurrences.

Example of a citation in a footnote:

  • First occurrence (full citation):

    22 HUSSERL, Edmund. Ideje k čisté fenomenologii a fenomenologické filosofii . RETTOVÁ, Anna, URBAN, Petr (překladatelé). Praha: OIKOYMENH, 2004, s. 10. ISBN 80-7298-085-8.
  • Subsequent occurrences (abbreviated citation):

    41 HUSSERL, E. Ideje k čisté fenomenologii a fenomenologické filosofii , s. 30
  • If the source in a footnote is the same as the source in the preceding footnote, then the Latin abbreviation “Ibid.” should be used:

    42 Ibid.